Jimmy's Chord Theory TOC                                                    Lesson 4

5

THERE ARE FOUR DISTINCT TYPES OF CHORDS:

C Major Chord           MAJOR   C Major Scale

based on major scales i.e C D E F G A B C
 


A Minor Chord           MINOR Natural Minor Scale

based on minor scales i.e. A B C D E F G A


DIMINISHED

based on dim. scales i.e. B D F G# B

the nine tone version is B C# D E F G G# A# B


AUGMENTED

based on aug. scales i.e. C E G# C

the seven tone version is C D E F# G# A# C


Notice the A MINOR scale above has the same notes

as the C MAJOR scale, but starts on A. This used to

be the Aeolian scale, but is now called a MODE.

DORIAN, PHRYGEAN and AEOLIAN MODES are MINOR.

If you are in the KEY of C MAJOR the AEOLIAN MODE

would be a C MAJOR SCALE played from A to A.

It would also be an A MINOR scale played in the key

of A MINOR, though technically you would still be

in the key of C.

DORIAN is a C scale played from D to D;

PHRYGEAN is played from E to E.

The C MAJOR SCALE played from C to C is of course

the HYPOMIXOLYDIAN MODE.

From F to F is LYDIAN; G to G is MIXOLYDIAN;

B to B is the devil's mode or LOCRIAN MODE,

but nothing bad will happen if you play it.


For a taste of Lydian (F to F) play this phrase:

Example Using Lydian Mode

The unexpected half step of C & B and the skip down
to whole tones G & F give the Lydian mode its old world flavor.

lydian.gif (2088 bytes)


If you number the notes of a Mixolydian scale you

will begin to detect a boogie seventh chord: G7

G A B C D E F G

1 2 3 4 5 6 b7 8

                             For example:

Example Using Mixolydian Mode

Some consider most blues and rock to be Mixolydian.

mixoldian.gif (2080 bytes)


In the Dorian mode do you sense a hint of Russian?

Example Using Dorian Mode

dorian.gif (2430 bytes)


Phrygean is distinctively Spanish:

Example Using Phrygian Mode

phrygian.gif (2853 bytes)


Every scale can be separated into 7 modes.

These are only the modes in C.

Since There are twelve scales, one for each note

or semitone, then there are 12 X 7 modes, 84 in all!

For example D Dorian, D Phrygean, D Lydian, etc.

E Dorian, E Phrygean, E Lydian, etc.

In modern music the modes help define jazz chords:
 

C Hypomixolydian C E G B C  -   C MAJOR 7th

1 3 5 7 (natural seventh)

C Dorian D F A C D   -    D MINOR 7th

1 b3 5 b7 (flat 3rd, flat 7th)

C Phrygean E G B D E   -    E MINOR 7th

1 b3 5 b7 (flat 3rd, flat 7th)

C Lydian F A C E F   -   F MAJOR 7th

1 3 5 7 (natural 7th)

C Mixolydian G B D F G (DOMINANT) 7th

1 3 5 b7 (flatted seventh only)

C Aeolian A C E G A MINOR 7th

1 b3 5 b7 (flat 3rd, flat 7th)

C Locrian B D F A B HALF DIMINISHED 7th

1 b3 b5 b7 or B MINOR 7th, flatted 5th
 

Since these modes are all based on a C Major scale,

why do the numbers change? It is because the

intervals between the semitones are different each

time depending on the starting note. For example,

compare the difference between a

C Major 7th and a D Minor 7th:

C D E F G A B C

1 b2 2 b3 3 4 b5 5 b6 6 b7 7 8

- - - - - - - -

D E F G A B C D

1 b2 2 b3 3 4 b5 5 b6 6 b7 7 8

- - - - - - - -

These numbers are universal to all chords,

but exist in a relative state to the internal intervals.

Between 3 & 4, and 7 & 8 is where the shift is most

noticed. To make D Minor into a D Major scale, watch:
 

D E F# G A B C# D

1 b2 2 b3 3 4 b5 5 b6 6 b7 7 8

 

NEXT: LESSON 6

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